|Titolo||E-waste policies and implementation: a global perspective|
|Tipo di pubblicazione||Monografia|
|Anno di Pubblicazione||2023|
|Autori||Castro, F.D., Júnior A.B. Botelho, Bassin J.P., Tenório J., Cutaia Laura, Vaccari M., and Espinosa D.|
|Series Title||Waste Management and Resource Recycling in the Developing World|
|Number of Pages||271-307|
E-waste (also known as WEEE) contains a wide range of elements, including valuable and critical metals as well as hazardous substances. E-waste management is thus critical from an economic, environmental, and social standpoint. However, difficulties exist in all management steps, with collection and treatment being the most impacted. Low collection rates are currently observed around the world, while treatment facilities must deal with a wide range of product designs, hazardous components, and rapidly changing technologies. In this scenario, Europe has the highest collection and recycling rates of any continent (42.5%), while America, Africa, Oceania, and Asia have rates of 9.4%, 0.9%, 8.8%, and 11.7%, respectively. The European Union’s member states must follow the e-waste Directive (2012/19/EU). Other countries around the world have enacted legislation to establish an appropriate e-waste management system and increase collection and recycling rates. Japan implemented WEEE management legislation at the start of the 21st century. Since the publication of the National Solid Waste Policy (no 12.305/10), Brazil has been working on a national approach, and a sectoral agreement was implemented in the country in 2019 to operationalize e-waste reverse logistics. However, not all countries have already enacted e-waste management legislation. This chapter presents and critically analyzes examples of e-waste policies from around the world. Furthermore, the implications of these policies for meeting targets and improving e-waste collection and recycling rates following the implementation of such legislation are discussed. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.