Seasonal variation in the biological effects of PM2.5 from greater cairo

TitleSeasonal variation in the biological effects of PM2.5 from greater cairo
Publication TypeArticolo su Rivista peer-reviewed
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsMarchetti, S., Hassan S.K., Shetaya W.H., El-Mekawy A., Mohamed E.F., Mohammed A.M.F., El-Abssawy A.A., Bengalli R., Colombo A., Gualtieri Maurizio, and Mantecca P.
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
KeywordsA-549 cell line, air pollutant, Air Pollutants, Air pollution, Aluminum, arsenic, article, autacoid, biological activity, biological marker, Biomarkers, Biomass, Cadmium, Cell cycle, cell cycle progression, Cell Survival, cell viability, Chemical composition, climate, cobalt, combustion, Copper, cytochrome P450 1A1, cytochrome P450 1B1, Cytotoxicity, DNA Replication, Egypt, element, endotoxin, Environmental monitoring, Flow cytometry, genotoxicity, health hazard, heme oxygenase 1, human, Humans, Inflammation Mediators, interleukin 8, Lead, Manganese, mercury, metabolic activity assay, metabolism, Nickel, Oxidative stress, particle size, particulate matter, physical chemistry, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, reactive oxygen metabolite, Reactive Oxygen Species, Scanning electron microscopy, season, seasonal variation, Seasons, Western blotting, Zinc

Greater Cairo (Egypt) is a megalopolis where the studies of the air pollution events are of extremely high relevance, for the geographical-climatological aspects, the anthropogenic emissions and the health impact. While preliminary studies on the particulate matter (PM) chemical composition in Greater Cairo have been performed, no data are yet available on the PM’s toxicity. In this work, the in vitro toxicity of the fine PM (PM2.5) sampled in an urban area of Greater Cairo during 2017–2018 was studied. The PM2.5 samples collected during spring, summer, autumn and winter were preliminary characterized to determine the concentrations of ionic species, elements and organic PM (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs). After particle extraction from filters, the cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects were evaluated in human lung A549 cells. The results showed that particles collected during the colder seasons mainly induced the xenobiotic metabolizing system and the consequent antioxidant and pro-inflammatory cytokine release responses. Biological events positively correlated to PAHs and metals representative of a combustion-derived pollution. PM2.5 from the warmer seasons displayed a direct effect on cell cycle progression, suggesting possible genotoxic effects. In conclusion, a correlation between the biological effects and PM2.5 physico-chemical properties in the area of study might be useful for planning future strategies aiming to improve air quality and lower health hazards. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


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