Extraction of Astaxanthin and Lutein from Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in the Red Phase Using CO₂ Supercritical Fluid Extraction Technology with Ethanol as Co-Solvent

TitleExtraction of Astaxanthin and Lutein from Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in the Red Phase Using CO₂ Supercritical Fluid Extraction Technology with Ethanol as Co-Solvent
Publication TypeArticolo su Rivista peer-reviewed
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMolino, Antonio, Mehariya S., Iovine A., Larocca Vincenzo, Di Sanzo Giuseppe, Martino Maria, Casella P., Chianese S., and Musmarra D.
JournalMarine drugs
Volume16
ISSN16603397
Keywordsalcohol, Antioxidant, Antioxidants, Astaxanthin, Carbon dioxide, chemistry, Chlorophyceae, Chromatography, devices, Ethanol, isolation and purification, Lutein, microalga, microalgae, procedures, solvent, Solvents, Supercritical Fluid, supercritical fluid chromatography, xanthophyll, Xanthophylls
Abstract

Astaxanthin and lutein, antioxidants used in nutraceutics and cosmetics, can be extracted from several microalgal species. In this work, investigations on astaxanthin and lutein extraction from Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis) in the red phase were carried out by means of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique, in which CO₂ supercritical fluid was used as the extracting solvent with ethanol as the co-solvent. The experimental activity was performed using a bench-scale reactor in semi-batch configuration with varying extraction times (20, 40, 60, and 80 min), temperatures (50, 65, and 80 °C) and pressures (100, 400, and 550 bar). Moreover, the performance of CO₂ SFE with ethanol was compared to that without ethanol. The results show that the highest astaxanthin and lutein recoveries were found at 65 °C and 550 bar, with 18.5 mg/g dry weight ( 92%) astaxanthin and 7.15 mg/g dry weight ( 93%) lutein. The highest astaxanthin purity and the highest lutein purity were found at 80 °C and 400 bar, and at 65 °C and 550 bar, respectively.

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URLhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85056262049&doi=10.3390%2fmd16110432&partnerID=40&md5=4284cd5cdbb1b123be6bda92b1a4a9e8
DOI10.3390/md16110432