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New approach in Auger elemental relative sensitive factor calculation by using TEM-EDS analysis based on bi-layers of pure elements

TitleNew approach in Auger elemental relative sensitive factor calculation by using TEM-EDS analysis based on bi-layers of pure elements
Publication TypeArticolo su Rivista peer-reviewed
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMello, D., Nacucchi Michele, Anastasi G., Sacchi M., Ricciari R., Burresi Emiliano, and Tapfer Leander
KeywordsAuger electron spectroscopies (AES), Auger electron spectroscopy, Augers, Budget control, Chip scale packages, Electrical contacts, Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometries (EDS), Experimental conditions, Failure (mechanical), Gold alloys, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Metal analysis, Micro-electronic devices, Microelectronics, Outages, Relative sensitive factors, Silicon substrates, Silicon wafers, silver, Silver alloys, Standard materials, Ternary alloys, Titanium alloys, Transmission electron microscopy

In fabrication of microelectronic devices two important steps are often recognized: i) all the processes performed on the wafer in order to build the active part of the devices and, ii) the assembly and packaging processes, typically performed on a chip, in order to fabricate interconnections between active part and exterior. The wafer back side is an active part of power devices and is normally coated with a stack of Ti-Ni-Au or Ti-Ni-Ag layers to ensure the best electrical contact with the frame on which the device is attached prior to the packaging. An important failure mechanism related to this particular process step is related to the diffusion of Ni to the surface of the stack that causes its oxidation on the back metal surface, inhibiting the correct connection to the metallic frame. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is a powerful analytical technique that can be used to detect this failure mechanism for its very high sensitivity in the characterization of surface layers. Unfortunately, its results are mainly qualitative. Quantitative extrapolations can be inaccurate using library Elemental Relative Sensitive Factor (ERSF) because they are mainly referred to a silicon substrate and could be not valid for a different matrix. A most accurate evaluation of the ERSF is based on the analysis, under identical experimental condition, of standard materials (with known concentration) that should be similar to the unknown sample and having the same matrix. However, the production of this kind of standard is not easy due to the mobility of Ni in Au and Ag. Another commonly used technique is the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) which is less sensitive than the Auger and not sufficiently adequate for a quantitative analysis due to the limitation of the matrix correction methods. Recently, a new method to perform quantitative analysis by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) EDS was proposed, starting from bi-layers of pure elements. In this work we show how the use of TEM-EDS quantification of Ni in Ag could be a successful method for ERSF evaluation in order to overcome matrix effect in Auger quantification. For this purpose suitable foils of Ag/Al and Ni/Al were used. The validation of the method was performed on a sample with a tri-metal stack of Ti/Ni/Ag previously stimulated by means of a thermal budget to induce Ni migration on Ag surface. The quantitative analysis allowed us to use this characterized sample as AES standard for ERSF calculation. © 2018


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Citation KeyMello2018143