|Title||Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles for Dunaliella tertiolecta and comparison with SiO2 and TiO2 effects at population growth inhibition levels|
|Publication Type||Articolo su Rivista peer-reviewed|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Schiavo, S., Oliviero M., Miglietta M., Rametta G., and Manzo Sonia|
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|Keywords||alga, Algae, article, Cell Division, cell membrane, cell proliferation, cell viability, Cells, comet, Comet assays, comparative study, concentration (parameters), controlled study, cytology, Cytotoxicity, DNA, DNA damages, Dunaliella tertiolecta, EC50, Effect concentration, exposure, genotoxicity, growth inhibition, inhibition, Marine microalgae, Metal nanoparticles, Microorganisms, nanoparticle, Nanoparticles, No-observed-effect-concentrations, nonhuman, Oxidative stress, physical chemistry, Physicochemical behaviors, population growth, Population statistics, priority journal, reactive oxygen metabolite, Seawater effects, silica nanoparticle, Titanium dioxide, titanium dioxide nanoparticle, Toxicity, Zinc, Zinc oxide, zinc oxide nanoparticle|
The increasing use of oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial products has intensified the potential release into the aquatic environment where algae represent the basis of the trophic chain. NP effects upon algae population growth were indeed already reported in literature, but the concurrent effects at cellular and genomic levels are still largely unexplored.Our work investigates the genotoxic (by COMET assay) and cytotoxic effects (by qualitative ROS production and cell viability) of ZnO nanoparticles toward marine microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta. A comparison at defined population growth inhibition levels (i.e. 50% Effect Concentration, EC50, and No Observed Effect Concentration, NOEC) with SiO2 and TiO2 genotoxic effects and previously investigated cytotoxic effects (Manzo et al., 2015) was performed in order to elucidate the possible diverse mechanisms leading to algae growth inhibition.After 72 h exposure, ZnO particles act firstly at the level of cell division inhibition (EC50: 2 mg Zn/L) while the genotoxic action is evident only starting from 5 mg Zn/L. This outcome could be ascribable mainly to the release of toxic ions from the aggregate of ZnO particle in the proximity of cell membrane.In the main, at EC50 and NOEC values for ZnO NPs showed the lowest cytotoxic and genotoxic effect with respect to TiO2 and SiO2. Based on Mutagenic Index (MI) the rank of toxicity is actually: TiO2 > SiO2 > ZnO with TiO2 and SiO2 that showed similar MI values at both NOEC and EC50 concentrations.The results presented herein suggest that up to TiO2 NOEC (7.5 mg/L), the algae DNA repair mechanism is efficient and the DNA damage does not result in an evident algae population growth inhibition. A similar trend for SiO2, although at lower effect level with respect to TiO2, is observable.The comparison among all the tested nanomaterial toxicity patterns highlighted that the algae population growth inhibition occurred through pathways specific for each NP also related to their different physicochemical behaviors in seawater. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..
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