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Advanced CRMs Recycling from spent LFP Batteries

Funding type: 
EU Programmes
EU Programme: 
1 August 2022 to 31 July 2024
ENEA role: 
ENEA Project Leader: 
Federica Forte

ACROBAT aims to recycle end-of-life LFP LIBs via efficient, innovative and environmentally-friendly processes and separation techniques to recover a maximum amount of EU-CRMs as high-value products and base metals (ferrous and Cu/Al fractions).

The specific ACROBAT objectives are to research, develop and validate:

  1. LFP-dedicated pre-treatment (i.e., shredding, mechanical separation) with reduced cross-contamination
  2. continuous, contact-free, in-line characterisation of LFP black mass 
  3. extractive recovery of electrolyte materials (i.e., conducting salts, organic solvents)
  4. recovery of graphite by froth flotation
  5. recovery of lithium as battery-grade lithium hydroxide monohydrate by HCl-based hydro-/solvometallurgy
  6. direct recycling of LFP black mass by tandem hydrometallurgy-hydrothermal synthesis.

The sustainability of the ACROBAT flowsheet is evaluated by a life cycle assessment. Overall, the ACROBAT consortium (VITO, ENEA, Fraunhofer ILT, KU Leuven, Accurec) aims to recover 90% of the EU-CRMs (Li, P and graphite) from LFP LIBs and recycle LFP cathode material, graphite and electrolyte, respectively up to 5.4, 6.2 and 4.4 kt/y by 2030 in Europe.

ACROBAT’s Industrial Advisory Board (Umicore, Bebat, Sortbat and Electrocycling) will catalyse the industrial valorisation of the project results.

Funded by: ERA-MIN3