|Title||Toward stomatal–flux based forest protection against ozone: The MOTTLES approach|
|Publication Type||Articolo su Rivista peer-reviewed|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Paoletti, E., Alivernini A., Anav A., Badea O., Carrari E., Chivulescu S., Conte A., Ciriani M.L., Dalstein-Richier L., De Marco Alessandra, Fares S., Fasano G., Giovannelli A., Lazzara M., Leca S., Materassi A., Moretti V., Pitar D., Popa I., Sabatini F., Salvati L., Sicard P., Sorgi T., and Hoshika Y.|
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|Keywords||Air quality, Artificial life, Atmospheric exposures, Forest health indicators, Forest monitoring, forestry, Health, Legislative standards, Metric calculation methods, monitoring, O3 injury, O3 metrics, Ozone, Phytotoxic ozone dose|
European standards for the protection of forests from ozone (O3) are based on atmospheric exposure (AOT40) that is not always representative of O3 effects since it is not a proxy of gas uptake through stomata (stomatal flux). MOTTLES “MOnitoring ozone injury for seTTing new critical LEvelS” is a LIFE project aimed at establishing a permanent network of forest sites based on active O3 monitoring at remote areas at high and medium risk of O3 injury, in order to define new standards based on stomatal flux, i.e. PODY (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold Y of uptake). Based on the first year of data collected at MOTTLES sites, we describe the MOTTLES monitoring station, together with protocols and metric calculation methods. AOT40 and PODY, computed with different methods, are then compared and correlated with forest–health indicators (radial growth, crown defoliation, visible foliar O3 injury). For the year 2017, the average AOT40 calculated according to the European Directive was even 5 times (on average 1.7 times) the European legislative standard for the protection of forests. When the metrics were calculated according to the European protocols (EU Directive 2008/50/EC or Modelling and Mapping Manual LTRAP Convention), the values were well correlated to those obtained on the basis of the real duration of the growing season (i.e. MOTTLES method) and were thus representative of the actual exposure/flux. AOT40 showed opposite direction relative to PODY. Visible foliar O3 injury appeared as the best forest–health indicator for O3 under field conditions and was more frequently detected at forest edge than inside the forest. The present work may help the set–up of further long–term forest monitoring sites dedicated to O3 assessment in forests, especially because flux-based assessments are recommended as part of monitoring air pollution impacts on ecosystems in the revised EU National Emissions Ceilings Directive. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.
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