|Title||Risks of aneuploidy induction from chemical exposure: Twenty years of collaborative research in Europe from basic science to regulatory implications|
|Publication Type||Articolo su Rivista peer-reviewed|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Kirsch-Volders, M., Pacchierotti Francesca, Parry E.M., Russo A., Eichenlaub-Ritter U., and Adler I.-D.|
|Journal||Mutation Research - Reviews in Mutation Research|
|Keywords||aneugen, aneuploidy, Apoptosis, Aspergillus nidulans, cell proliferation, chromosome, chromosome number, chromosome segregation, comparative study, DNA damage checkpoint, dose response, endoreduplication, environmental factor, Europe, fluorescence in situ hybridization, genetic toxicology, germ cell, human, metabolic activation, micronucleus, micronucleus test, mutagen testing, next generation sequencing, polyploidy, practice guideline, priority journal, reproducibility, review, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, somatic cell, spermatocyte|
Although Theodor Boveri linked abnormal chromosome numbers and disease more than a century ago, an in-depth understanding of the impact of mitotic and meiotic chromosome segregation errors on cell proliferation and diseases is still lacking. This review reflects on the efforts and results of a large European research network that, from the 1980′s until 2004, focused on protection against aneuploidy-inducing factors and tackled the following problems: 1) the origin and consequences of chromosome imbalance in somatic and germ cells; 2) aneuploidy as a result of environmental factors; 3) dose-effect relationships; 4) the need for validated assays to identify aneugenic factors and classify them according to their modes of action; 5) the need for reliable, quantitative data suitable for regulating exposure and preventing aneuploidy induction; 6) the need for mechanistic insight into the consequences of aneuploidy for human health. This activity brought together a consortium of experts from basic science and applied genetic toxicology to prepare the basis for defining guidelines and to encourage regulatory activities for the prevention of induced aneuploidy. Major strengths of the EU research programmes on aneuploidy were having a valuable scientific approach based on well-selected compounds and accurate methods that allow the determination of precise dose-effect relationships, reproducibility and inter-laboratory comparisons. The work was conducted by experienced scientists stimulated by a fascination with the complex scientific issues surrounding aneuploidy; a key strength was asking the right questions at the right time. The strength of the data permitted evaluation at the regulatory level. Finally, the entire enterprise benefited from a solid partnership under the lead of an inspired and stimulating coordinator. The research programme elucidated the major modes of action of aneugens, developed scientifically sound assays to assess aneugens in different tissues, and achieved the international validation of relevant assays with the goal of protecting human populations from aneugenic chemicals. The role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis will require additional research, and the study of effects of exposure to multiple agents should become a priority. It is hoped that these reflections will stimulate the implementation of aneuploidy testing in national and OECD guidelines. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
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