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Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic digesters and predicted concentrations in agroecosystems

TitleAntibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic digesters and predicted concentrations in agroecosystems
Publication TypeArticolo su Rivista peer-reviewed
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsVisca, Andrea, Rauseo Jasmin, Spataro Francesca, Patrolecco Luisa, Grenni Paola, Massini Giulia, Miritana Valentina Mazzurco, and Caracciolo Anna Barra
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Keywordsaac-(6')-Ib-cr gene, agricultural ecosystem, agroecosystem, Aluminum, Anaerobic digestion, anaerobic growth, Anaerobiosis, Anti-Bacterial Agents, antibiotic agent, antibiotic resistance, Antibiotics, antiinfective agent, article, autumn, Bacterial, bacterial gene, bacterial RNA, barium ion, biofertilizer, Biogas, calcium ion, carbon, cattle manure, cesium ion, Chromium, Ciprofloxacin, ciprofloxacin resistance, class 1 integron, concentration (composition), controlled study, Drug Resistance, Food waste, gene dosage, Gene expression, Genes, genetics, high performance liquid chromatography, intl1 gene, lithium ion, magnesium ion, manure, Microbial, mobile genetic element, multiple reaction monitoring, Nickel, Nitrogen, nonhuman, organic fertilizer, qepA gene, qnrS gene, real time polymerase chain reaction, RNA 16S, rural area, silage, silver, Soil, Soil pollution, spring, Strontium, sul1 gene, sul2 gene, Sulfamethoxazole, summer, winter, zinc ion

In recent decades, the innovative practice of management and valorization of agrozootechnical waste as energy through anaerobic digestion (AD) has been rapidly growing. However, whether applying digestate to soil as biofertilizer can be a source of antibiotics (ABs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has not been fully investigated so far. In this work the ARGs responsible for sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance (sul1, sul2), ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistance (qnrS, qepA, aac-(6′)-Ib-cr) and the mobile genetic element intl1, together with the concentrations of the antibiotics SMX and CIP, were measured in several anaerobic digesters located in Central Italy. Based on these results, the concentrations of antibiotics and ARGs which can potentially reach soil through amendment with digestate were also estimated. The highest CIP and SMX concentrations were found during winter and spring in anaerobic digesters. The highest ARG abundances were found for the aac-(6’)-Ib-cr and sul2 genes. The overall results showed that application of digestate to soil does not exclude AB contamination and spread of ARGs in agroecosystems, especially in the case of ciprofloxacin, owing to its high intrinsic persistence. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd


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Citation Keyvisca2022antibiotics