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Effects of sulfamethoxazole on growth and antibiotic resistance of a natural microbial community

TitleEffects of sulfamethoxazole on growth and antibiotic resistance of a natural microbial community
Publication TypeArticolo su Rivista peer-reviewed
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsRauseo, Jasmin, Caracciolo Anna Barra, Spataro Francesca, Visca Andrea, Ademollo Nicoletta, Pescatore Tanita, Grenni Paola, and Patrolecco Luisa
KeywordsAnaerobic digestion, Antibiotic concentration, antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic resistance genes, Antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, Antibiotic-resistant genes, Antibiotics, Antibody, Biodegradation, concentration (composition), Concentration-dependent, Fertilizers, Genes, growth, Manures, microbial activity, Microbial communities, Microbial community, Microorganisms, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sulfamethoxazole

Diffuse environmental antibiotic and antibiotic resistance gene contamination is increasing human and animal exposure to these emerging compounds with a consequent risk of reduction in antibiotic effectiveness. The present work investigated the effect of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on growth and antibiotic resistance genes of a microbial community collected from an anaerobic digestion plant fed with cattle manure. Digestate samples were used as inoculum for concentration-dependent experiments using SMX at various concentrations. The antibiotic concentrations affecting the mixed microbial community in terms of growth and spread of resistant genes (sul1, sul2) were investigated through OD (Optical Density) measures and qPCR assays. Moreover, SMX biodegradation was assessed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The overall results showed that SMX concentrations in the range of those found in the environment did not affect the microbial community growth and did not select for antibiotic-resistant gene (ARG) maintenance or spread. Furthermore, the microorganisms tested were able to degrade SMX in only 24 h. This study confirms the complexity of antibiotic resistance spread in real matrices where different microorganisms coexist and suggests that antibiotic biodegradation needs to be included for fully understanding the resistance phenomena among bacteria. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


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Citation Keyrauseo2021effects