|Title||Nitrogen Budget and Statistical Entropy Analysis of the Tiber River Catchment, a Highly Anthropized Environment|
|Publication Type||Articolo su Rivista peer-reviewed|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||De Marco, Alessandra, Fornasier M.F., Screpanti A., Lombardi D., and Vitale M.|
Modern farming causes a decline in the recycling of the soil’s inorganic matter due to losses by leaching, runoff, or infiltration into the groundwater. The Soil System Budget approach was applied to evaluate the net N budget at the catchment and sub-catchment levels of the Tiber River (central Italy) in order to establish the causes for different N budgets among the sub-catchments. Statistical Entropy Analysis (SEA) was used to evaluate the N efficiency of the Tiber River and its sub-catchments, providing information on the dispersion of different N forms in the environment. The total N inputs exceeded the total outputs, showing a low N retention (15.8%) at the catchment level, although some sub-catchments showed higher N retention values. The Utilized Agricultural Area was important in the determination of the N balance, as it was linked to zoo-and agricultural activities, although the Random Forest analysis showed that the importance ranking changed with the land use. The low N retention of the Tiber catchment was due to the soil characteristics (Cambisols and Leptosols), loads from atmospheric deposition, biological fixation, and the livestock industry. The SEA simulations showed a reduction of the N released into the atmosphere and groundwater compartments from 34% to 6% through a reduction of the N loads by 50%. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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